Posts made in marzo, 2015

On gastro-intestinal metabolism and toxicology of fumonisin derivatives

Posted by on mar 28, 2015 in News

On gastro-intestinal metabolism and toxicology of fumonisin derivatives

A recent paper published in collaboration with our colleagues in Austria and devoted to the in vivo effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high...

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Masked fumonisins in feed are released during digestion

Posted by on mar 28, 2015 in News

Masked fumonisins in feed are released during digestion

Conventional analytical methods used for the analysis of fumonisin content in animal feeds fail to take into account the fumonisin content bound to the matrix, which is otherwise bioaccessible and can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, underestimation of fumonisin content using routine analytical methods can affect animal experiments using cereals contaminated by fungal culture. In the present study the hidden fumonisin B1 was analysed in two cereal substrates (maize and wheat), which were inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826). The study compared a routine...

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Lipidomics!

Posted by on mar 28, 2015 in News

Lipidomics!

Oxylipins are fatty acid-derived signaling compounds produced by all eukaryotes so far investigated; in mycotoxigenic fungi, they modulate toxin production and interactions with the host plants. Among the many enzymes responsible for oxylipin generation, Linoleate Diol Synthase 1 (LDS1) produces mainly 8-hydroperoxyoctadecenoic acid and subsequently different di-hydroxyoctadecenoic acids. Experiments, aimed to reproduce the in vivo interaction among oxylipins and their potential target, may demonstrate how the lipid-derived signal can shape expression of the fungal genome, opening new...

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In silico prediction of the poisoning activity of foodborne Alternaria toxins

Posted by on mar 27, 2015 in News

In silico prediction of the poisoning activity of foodborne Alternaria toxins

We have recently presented an innovative method to preliminary screening toxins metabolites in foods. Such techniques, derived from medicinal chemistry, allow the priority setting of compounds gaining time and money. Alternaria species are widespread microfungi the secondary metabolites of which may accumulate in crops and enter into food production chain. Among them, the “emerging mycotoxin” alternariol and alternariol-methyl ether arouse concern due to evidences of toxicity. In particular, the disruption of topoisomerases leads to genotoxic outcomes. Metabolic modifications may...

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On the stability and bioavailability of fumonisins after cooking

Posted by on mar 27, 2015 in News

On the stability and bioavailability of fumonisins after cooking

Food processing may induce thermal degradation of fumonisins in corn via Maillard-type reactions, or alkaline hydrolysis via loss of the two tricarballylic acid moieties. In the former case, N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-fumonisin B1 (NDF) can be formed, while the latter derivative is called hydrolysed fumonisin B1 (HFB1). The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the gastrointestinal stability of HFB1 and NDF in humans. Due to the lack of standard, NDF was chemically synthesised and cleaned up in high purity to be used for further experiments. While NDF is already partially...

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You can’t avoid ham, if you live in Parma

Posted by on mar 27, 2015 in News

You can’t avoid ham, if you live in Parma

This study deals with the identification of the peptides released after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of dry-cured Parma hams, using a physiological digestion model in terms of number of steps and composition of digestive juices. The obtained peptide mixture was analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with single quadrupole mass spectrometer detector and liquid chromatography hyphenated with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and LTQ-orbitrap. This approach allowed for the identification of up to 81 different peptide sequences, mainly originating not only...

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Drying mais to reduce fumonisin content

Posted by on mar 27, 2015 in News

Drying mais to reduce fumonisin content

The drying process is commonly applied to maize grain to guarantee a safe storage. Therefore, we tested two different conditions on 6 maize hybrids collected in 2010 in Italy. Maize samples were analysed for fungal incidence, kernel chemical composition (proteins, fat, starch) and free and hidden forms of fumonisins (FBs) pre- and post-drying treatments. Drying treatments reduced fungal incidence; in particular, both temperature × time combinations were able to reduce more than 85% Fusarium spp. incidence. In general, both free and total FBs increased after drying, especially at 70 °C for...

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Chestnuts: the environmental effect.

Posted by on mar 27, 2015 in News

Chestnuts: the environmental effect.

Phytohemical composition, morphology and food-related properties of chestnuts may vary with different geoclimatic and soil conditions, but also with altitude. This time we have evaluated the effects of altitude  on flour chemical composition and on fruit morphological parameters of different chestnut cultivars (Luetta e Leccardina), grown at two different altitude levels (700 and 1000 m.a.s.l.). In particular, crude protein, crude fat, amino acid and essential fatty acid content were determined on flours. The two genotypes were also studied from a morphological standpoint, by a biometric and...

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Orange juice, antioxidants and processing

Posted by on mar 26, 2015 in News

Orange juice, antioxidants and processing

A recently published book on processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages, edited by prof. Victor Preedy, hosts an LS9 produced chapter on the processing of the most consumed fruit juice worldwide, orange juice. The production process potentially greatly affects these positive characteristics, diminishing the concentration of bioactive compounds as well as affecting organoleptic properties. Stabilizing treatment aimed at inhibiting microbial spoilage as well as enzymatic reactions are mainly based on thermal processes, which generally have detrimental effects on ascorbic acid...

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Influence of the industrial process from caryopsis to cornmeal semolina on levels of fumonisins and their masked forms

Posted by on mar 26, 2015 in News

Influence of the industrial process from caryopsis to cornmeal semolina on levels of fumonisins and their masked forms

Which is the fate of mycotoxins like fumonisins when corn is processed? The influence of cornmeal industrial production processing on the distribution of fumonisins in the various different production chain corn derivatives (corn, corn flour, germ, middlings, broken corn, cornflake and cornmeal flour) was studied. Free and hydrolyzed fumonisin fractions were extracted and their content was determined by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Results showed that fumonisin amounts decreased significantly after cleaning and corn-flaking processes, achieving a final reduction of about 40% in the cornmeal semolina,...

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