Posts made in gennaio, 2016

Masked trichothecene mycotoxin in cereal crops

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Masked trichothecene mycotoxin in cereal crops

T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity,...

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Fumonisins and sphingolipids metabolism in rat

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Fumonisins and sphingolipids metabolism in rat

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week,...

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Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?

Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe....

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Determination of sterigmatocystin in feed by LC-MS/MS

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Determination of sterigmatocystin in feed by LC-MS/MS

An LC-MS/MS method is proposed for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals and feed. The method is based on a solid–liquid extraction and a dilute-and-shoot approach. Accuracy and precision were established at the LOQ (1 μg kg−1); the mean overall recovery (n = 6) was 98%, with a confidence interval of 3.8% and a CV% of 3.7%. Accuracy and precision were also assessed at three other concentration levels (2.03, 5.07 and 10.14 μg kg−1; six replicates per level). The mean overall recovery (n = 24, LOQ included) was 99% with a confidence interval of 0.8% and a CV% of 1.9%. The...

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Hazard identification of cis/trans-zearalenone through the looking-glass

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Hazard identification of cis/trans-zearalenone through the looking-glass

Among the food-related health issues, the presence of contaminants has a prominent role, due to the wide range of exogenous compounds that can occur in food commodities and to their large differences in structure and biological activity. A comprehensive assessment of the related risk is thus actually demanding in terms of time and facilities involved. In this context, the use of computational strategies can be an effective choice for supporting the hazard identification procedure at the early stage. In this work, we focused on the food contaminant zearalenone by comparing the trans and cis...

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On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide?

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide?

In the matter of foodborne mycotoxins, beside a number of regulated compounds, regulations are totally missing for phase-II plant metabolites – the toxicological knowledge of which is still in its infancy. Currently, zearalenone-14-glucoside is in the pipeline and its toxicological role is under a glowing scientific debate. In our work it clearly showed high toxicological concerns as it is prone to conversion to well-known toxic compounds (i.e. zearalenone and both zearalenol isomers) when exposed to breast cancer cells culture. The need of future risk assessment studies has been pointed...

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Oleoyl and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 are differently produced by Fusarium verticillioides on maize and rice based media

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Oleoyl and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 are differently produced by Fusarium verticillioides on maize and rice based media

Fatty acid esters of fumonisins, namely oleoyl- and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 (EFB1OA and EFB1LA, respectively), are modified forms of fumonisins whose formation and occurrence have been reported so far in naturally infected maize and in artificially inoculated rice. There is a lack of knowledge about the mechanism of formation, mainly in relation to the role played by the substrate. Therefore, in this work we studied the dynamics of accumulation of the toxin and its esters, together with their precursor, in maize and rice based media inoculated with different strains of F....

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Plants as herbicides: Cryptocarya massoy

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Plants as herbicides: Cryptocarya massoy

The hydrodistilled oil of Cryptocarya massoy bark was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, allowing the identification of unusual C10 massoia lactone (3, 56.2%), C12 massoia lactone (4, 16.5%), benzyl benzoate (1, 12.7%), C8 massoia lactone (3.4%), δ-decalactone (5, 1.5%), and benzyl salicylate (2, 1.8%) as main constituents. The phytotoxic activities of the oil, three enriched fractions (lactone-rich, ester-rich, and sesquiterpene-rich), and four constituents (compounds 1, 2, 5, and δ-dodecalactone (6)) against Lycopersicon esculentum and Cucumis sativus seeds and seedlings were...

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Curcumin is a trendy topic…

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

Curcumin is a trendy topic…

… but few informations are available on its human bioavailability, so we tried to fill this gap. In the present study, the colonic metabolism of three curcuminoids (80.1% curcumin, 15.6%, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and 2.6% bis-demethoxycurcumin (Bis-DMC)) was evaluated using an in vitro model containing human faecal starters. The breakdown products formed were identified and characterized using different analytical platforms. Following in vitro incubation, the relative amounts of degraded curcuminoids and the produced metabolites were analyzed using a UHPLC coupled with a linear ion trap...

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What happens to black rice polyphenols during domestic cooking?

Posted by on gen 26, 2016 in News

What happens to black rice polyphenols during domestic cooking?

In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. “risotto” and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The...

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