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5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone and its sulphate conjugates, representative circulating metabolites of flavan-3-ols, exhibit anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli in bladder epithelial cells

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone and its sulphate conjugates, representative circulating metabolites of flavan-3-ols, exhibit anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli in bladder epithelial cells

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are mostly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cranberry-based products have shown preventive effects against UTI, and this has been partially attributed to their A-type proanthocyanidin content. However, recent evidence reports phenyl-γ-valerolactones as the most relevant urinary metabolites of cranberry procyanidins, and candidates these compounds as plausible responsible for the protective effects of cranberries against UTI. This paper studied the inhibition of the adherence of UPEC ATCC®53503™ to T24 bladder epithelial cells by...

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A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: Level of evidence and limitations

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: Level of evidence and limitations

To summarize available evidence on the association between dietary flavonoid as well as lignan intake and cancer risk in observational studies, a systematic search on electronic databases of all English language case–control and prospective studies published up to June 2016 was performed. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by random-effects model separately by study design. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested. Out of the 143 studies included, meta-analyses of prospective studies showed isoflavones significantly associated with decreased risk of lung...

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The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with...

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Phenyl-γ-valerolactones, flavan-3-ol colonic metabolites, protect brown adipocytes from oxidative stress without affecting their differentiation or function

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

Phenyl-γ-valerolactones, flavan-3-ol colonic metabolites, protect brown adipocytes from oxidative stress without affecting their differentiation or function

Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes. Immortalized brown pre-adipocytes were differentiated in presence of...

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Synthetic and analytical strategies for the quantification of phenyl-γ-valerolactone conjugated metabolites in human urine

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

Synthetic and analytical strategies for the quantification of phenyl-γ-valerolactone conjugated metabolites in human urine

The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of catechins and proanthocyanidins remains unclear. Phenyl-γ-valerolactones have been identified as the most representative metabolites of these dietary flavan-3-ols, but their accurate quantification has posed problems because of a lack of appropriate bioanalytical standards. This work aimed at synthesizing a novel set of sulphate- and glucuronide-conjugated phenyl-γ-valerolactones and at developing an analytical platform using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS for their quantification in urine. Eight glucuronide and sulphate conjugates of...

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Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under European Community Regulation 1924/2006 in the framework of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under European Community Regulation 1924/2006 in the framework of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

The high number of negative opinions from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to the requests for authorization of health claims is largely due to the design of human intervention studies, including the inappropriate choice of outcome variables (OVs) and of their methods of measurement (MMs). The present manuscript reports the results of an investigation aimed to collect, collate and critically analyse the information in relation to claimed effects, OVs and MMs, in the context of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health compliant with Regulation...

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Bioavailability of Black Tea Theaflavins: Absorption, Metabolism, and Colonic Catabolism

Posted by on Nov 2, 2017 in News

Bioavailability of Black Tea Theaflavins: Absorption, Metabolism, and Colonic Catabolism

Data obtained with in vitro fecal incubations and a feeding study indicate black tea theaflavin and its galloyl derivatives are not absorbed in detectable amounts in either the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. The theaflavin skeleton is comparatively resistant to degradation by colonic bacteria with a 67% recovery being obtained after a 24 h incubation, which yielded 21 phenolic and aromatic catabolites. The theaflavin galloyl moiety was removed by the microbiota, and the released gallic acid further transformed to 3-O– and 4-O-methyl gallic acids, pyrogallol-1-sulfate and...

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Dietary (Poly)phenols, Brown Adipose Tissue Activation, and Energy Expenditure: A Narrative Review

Posted by on Ott 31, 2017 in News

Dietary (Poly)phenols, Brown Adipose Tissue Activation, and Energy Expenditure: A Narrative Review

  The incidence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making the control of body weight and its complications a primary health problem. Diet has long played a first-line role in preventing and managing obesity. However, beyond the obvious strategy of restricting caloric intake, growing evidence supports the specific antiobesity effects of some food-derived components, particularly (poly)phenolic compounds. The relatively new rediscovery of active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has generated interest in this tissue as a novel and viable target for stimulating...

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How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers

Posted by on Ott 31, 2017 in News

How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers

The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in...

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A new, DNA-based method to detect pomegranate adulteration

Posted by on Feb 11, 2016 in News

A new, DNA-based method to detect pomegranate adulteration

The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration, which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus × domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method...

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