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Gastrointestinal stability of urolithins: an in vitro approach

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Gastrointestinal stability of urolithins: an in vitro approach

Urolithins are bioactive ellagitannin-derived metabolites showing a wide phenotypic variation in their production by the gut microbiota. This work represents a first in vitro step toward the development of new strategies focused on the oral supplementation of urolithins with the aim of overcoming their selective production and making their putative health benefits available for the whole population. In order to study their gastrointestinal stability, urolithin A, urolithin B, and urolithin B-glucuronide, as well as ellagic acid, were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion model...

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Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review

Cereal-based products, like breads, are a vehicle for bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. The health effects of polyphenols like phenolic acids (PAs) are dependent on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present review summarizes the current understanding of potential strategies to improve phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability and the main findings of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating these strategies applied to breads, including the use of raw ingredients with greater phenolic content and different pre-processing technologies, such as fermentation and...

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Environmental impact of omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and vegan diet

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Environmental impact of omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and vegan diet

Food and beverage consumption has a great impact on the environment, although there is a lack of information concerning the whole diet. The environmental impact of 153 Italian adults (51 omnivores, 51 ovo-lacto-vegetarians, 51 vegans) and the inter-individual variability within dietary groups were assessed in a real-life context. Food intake was monitored with a 7-d dietary record to calculate nutritional values and environmental impacts (carbon, water, and ecological footprints). The Italian Mediterranean Index was used to evaluate the nutritional quality of each diet. The omnivorous choice...

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Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect

As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers’ health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate...

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5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone and its sulphate conjugates, representative circulating metabolites of flavan-3-ols, exhibit anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli in bladder epithelial cells

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone and its sulphate conjugates, representative circulating metabolites of flavan-3-ols, exhibit anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli in bladder epithelial cells

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are mostly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cranberry-based products have shown preventive effects against UTI, and this has been partially attributed to their A-type proanthocyanidin content. However, recent evidence reports phenyl-γ-valerolactones as the most relevant urinary metabolites of cranberry procyanidins, and candidates these compounds as plausible responsible for the protective effects of cranberries against UTI. This paper studied the inhibition of the adherence of UPEC ATCC®53503™ to T24 bladder epithelial cells by...

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A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: Level of evidence and limitations

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: Level of evidence and limitations

To summarize available evidence on the association between dietary flavonoid as well as lignan intake and cancer risk in observational studies, a systematic search on electronic databases of all English language case–control and prospective studies published up to June 2016 was performed. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by random-effects model separately by study design. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested. Out of the 143 studies included, meta-analyses of prospective studies showed isoflavones significantly associated with decreased risk of lung...

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The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with...

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Phenyl-γ-valerolactones, flavan-3-ol colonic metabolites, protect brown adipocytes from oxidative stress without affecting their differentiation or function

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Phenyl-γ-valerolactones, flavan-3-ol colonic metabolites, protect brown adipocytes from oxidative stress without affecting their differentiation or function

Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes. Immortalized brown pre-adipocytes were differentiated in presence of...

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Synthetic and analytical strategies for the quantification of phenyl-γ-valerolactone conjugated metabolites in human urine

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Synthetic and analytical strategies for the quantification of phenyl-γ-valerolactone conjugated metabolites in human urine

The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of catechins and proanthocyanidins remains unclear. Phenyl-γ-valerolactones have been identified as the most representative metabolites of these dietary flavan-3-ols, but their accurate quantification has posed problems because of a lack of appropriate bioanalytical standards. This work aimed at synthesizing a novel set of sulphate- and glucuronide-conjugated phenyl-γ-valerolactones and at developing an analytical platform using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS for their quantification in urine. Eight glucuronide and sulphate conjugates of...

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Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under European Community Regulation 1924/2006 in the framework of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

Posted by on nov 2, 2017 in News

Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under European Community Regulation 1924/2006 in the framework of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

The high number of negative opinions from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to the requests for authorization of health claims is largely due to the design of human intervention studies, including the inappropriate choice of outcome variables (OVs) and of their methods of measurement (MMs). The present manuscript reports the results of an investigation aimed to collect, collate and critically analyse the information in relation to claimed effects, OVs and MMs, in the context of protection against oxidative damage and cardiovascular health compliant with Regulation...

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